Naltrexone: Dosages, Uses, and Side Effects
Author: Christine Roth
Last Updated: 8/18/2022
Naltrexone is a drug that is commonly used to aid the recovery of those who are experiencing opioid use disorder and alcohol use disorder. While this drug can be very useful for things such as suppressing cravings, it will not help to manage the side effects of withdrawal.
One of the most important things to remember is that this medication is a recovery aid, rather than a cure; this medication is intended to be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional with consistent monitoring alongside other forms of treatment and support such as counseling.
The most common dosage of Naltrexone for both opioid and alcohol use disorders is a 380 mg intramuscular shot every 4 weeks, which is administered by a specially trained healthcare professional.
What is Naltrexone?
Naltrexone is a medication that treats opioid and alcohol abuse. In regards to opioid abuse, it is used to block the effects of opioid medications, including pain relief, and also helps in reducing cravings. For alcohol abuse or dependency, it is generally used to help reduce cravings which can help you drink less, or stop drinking altogether.
Naltrexone is not intended to be a cure for alcohol abuse or dependence, but rather an aid to assist with the detox process alongside other treatment plans such as counseling.
How Does Naltrexone work?
Naltrexone is beneficial for both opioid and alcohol use disorders and works in slightly different ways to aid in the treatment of each. For alcohol use disorders, naltrexone works by binding to the endorphin receptors in the body, therefore, blocking the effects and feelings of alcohol, and helping to reduce cravings. This medication will not stop withdrawal symptoms.
In regards to opioids, Naltrexone blocks the euphoric and sedative effects of opioids such as heroin, morphine, and codeine. Naltrexone does so by binding to and blocking opioid receptors which in turn suppresses cravings.
How to Take Naltrexone?
The most common way naltrexone is administered is as an intramuscular injection, done by a healthcare professional every 4 weeks. There may be pain, redness, itching, bruising, swelling or a hard lump at the injection site initially. Tell your doctor if these side effects do not subside within 2 weeks or worsen.
Furthermore, talk to your doctor if you have or have ever been diagnosed with liver disease, kidney disease, or bleeding problems such as hemophilia. These conditions make Naltrexone more dangerous.
What are the Uses of Naltrexone?
The main use of Naltrexone is to help treat opioid abuse, with secondary use of assisting in the treatment of alcohol abuse. Naltrexone stops alcohol cravings but will not treat or prevent withdrawal symptoms.
This medication is not intended to be used on its own and should be used alongside other forms of treatment for substance abuse such as counseling.
What are the Side Effects of Naltrexone?
Naltrexone has a few side effects. Additionally, Naltrexone makes alcohol consumption uncomfortable. Some of the most common side effects of Naltrexone are listed below.
- Joint or muscle pain
- Loss of appetite
- Sleep problems
- Tooth pain
- Cold symptoms (such as a stuffy nose, sneezing or a sore throat)
It’s important to note that many of these common symptoms also overlap with symptoms of alcohol or opioid withdrawal, most notably stomach pain, vomiting or diarrhea, runny nose, watery eyes, body aches, and trouble sleeping.
For those who have recently detoxed or in the process of withdrawing from substance use, it may be difficult to tell whether or not the medication is causing these side effects or amplifying them.
While allergic reactions with naltrexone are rare we list some common reactions below.
- Chest pain
- Wheezing or difficulty breathing
- Swelling of the face, lips, tongue, or throat.
In cases of a severe allergic reaction, contact emergency health services immediately.
How Long Do Naltrexone Side Effects Last?
The most common side effects of this medication (such as nausea, vomiting, and dizziness)subside within a few weeks of treatment. However, some more severe side effects (such as liver problems) may have long-term consequences if not treated early on.
Side effects when drinking alcohol with Naltrexone will occur each time. It’s for this reason that Naltrexone reduces alcohol cravings.
What is the Difference Between Naltrexone and Suboxone?
Suboxone is a medication that is a combination of Naloxone and Buprenorphine. The combination of these two drugs is intended to help reduce cravings as well as counteract the effects of opioids.
Suboxone is taken orally as either standard tablets or a film that is placed under the tongue to be dissolved. Suboxone is most commonly used to treat opioid use disorders rather than alcohol use disorders but has been seen as useful in helping to ease adverse withdrawal symptoms of those who have stopped drinking and are working towards maintaining sobriety.
Much like Naltrexone, Suboxone works by attaching to the same brain receptors as opioids and blocking them which helps to prevent intoxication and prevent cravings.
Naltrexone is non-addictive, as there is no presence of synthetic opioids, but you need to wait 7 to 14 days after completely stopping opioid use before beginning the medication as there is a chance for it to cause sudden opioid withdrawal. Suboxone, on the other hand, does pose a risk for physical and psychological dependence, especially when used for an extended period of time.
While naltrexone can be quit or stopped immediately, suboxone cannot as it may trigger withdrawal symptoms similar to those of opioids and must be weaned off gradually.
What is the Difference Between Naltrexone and Naloxone?
Naloxone, more commonly known as Narcan, is a medication that is able to rapidly reverse opioid overdose. Naloxone is an opioid antagonist or inhibitor, which works to block the effects of opioids by attaching itself to the opioid receptors in the brain and blocking them.
The biggest difference between Naltrexone and Naloxone is that Naloxone is a medication only administered on its own in cases of emergency, while naltrexone is routinely taken.
What is the Difference Between Naltrexone and Buprenorphine?
Unlike Naltrexone, Buprenorphine is a long-lasting, fully synthetic opioid and partial opioid agonist. Buprenorphine produces similar feelings of a high from opiates, but at a much weaker level which may help those trying to recover from opioid addictions to avoid symptoms of withdrawal as well as learn how to manage cravings.
Similar to Naltrexone, Buprenorphine works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and blocking other opioids from being able to affect them. However, despite the fact that it can provide a feeling similar to a high, it has a limit to the degree of euphoria or other opioid effects that someone can experience from it.
A high dose of this medication is often considered a last resort for those struggling with treatment-resistant alcohol use disorder, and will not be prescribed to the average person undergoing treatment for alcohol use disorders. Medications such as Naltrexone, Antabuse, or Gabapentin are more commonly prescribed early on in treatment.
Is Naltrexone Addictive?
No, naltrexone is not physically or psychologically addictive. Naltrexone, unlike some other medications used to treat alcohol or opioid use disorder, does not contain any opioids.
Additionally, because this medicine is most commonly administered as an injection, the chances for both addiction and overdose are closely monitored in a professional setting and on a regular basis.
Is Naltrexone Used for Weight Loss?
Yes, naltrexone can be used for weight loss. Very low doses of naltrexone, when used in combination with bupropion, a reduced-calorie diet, and exercise had proven to be effective for those who suffer from weight gain from emotional eating, or binge eating and help to regulate appetite.
Naltrexone is especially helpful for those who are insulin resistant as it helps to regulate the metabolism and modulate cellular resistance to insulin.